Friday, July 18, 2014

DESTINATIONS: JAPAN (1982): KYOTO & NARA

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A Zen temple, Kyoto
A couple of days before we were to leave for Osaka we happened to go on a day-trip to Yokohama. Yokohama, according to common knowledge, has been one of the important ports of Japan ever since the country opened up to the Westerners in the 19th Century. Today, however, it is not only a major port for the country, it is a very decent town and large enough to be ranked as its second most populous city. We, however, were not there to have a look at the port. We were there to get a lowdown on the Japanese Post Bank. The Post Bank, we
found, was a massive organisation located in its huge offices in its own building in Yokohama. It was still a part of the Post Office
Yokohama
with its own Director General and it held more deposits than any bank in Japan. Today, however, after Premier Koizumi’s privatisation of the Post Office, the Post Bank has become the world’s biggest deposit-holder besides being a full-fledged member of the Japanese Bankers Association. Commencing its business in the 19th Century as a Savings Bank it traversed quite a long distance to offer now numerous banking services and runs ATMs throughout the country. Incidentally, our own Post Office is now in the process of taking baby steps to convert the Post Office Savings Bank into a full-fledged bank.
Kinkakuji Golden Temple, Kyoto

Soon, we were ready to leave by Shinkansen, as the Bullet Train is known in Japanese, for Osaka. Everyone was naturally excited as it was going to be an experience. We assembled at the Tokyo Station situated close to the business district of Ginza. The sleek white and blue train parked on the platform was a beauty. I went along the cars to have a look at the locomotive that had that typical aerodynamic shape with a pointed nose to cleave the air. Inside the train the ambience and the fixtures were so different that one never felt that one was
Heian Jingu Shinto shrine, Kyoto
travelling in a train. Noise was minimal and it was like what one gets in a jet passenger plane. There was no rocking or jolting; it was more like a smooth glide over rails. One realised the speed only when one looked out of the panoramic windows and saw the telephone posts zipping past at an incredible pace of more than 200 kilometres an hour. It was, however, so smooth that the cup of coffee kept on one’s table in front wouldn’t shake as it does here even in the prestigious Sahatabdi. The trip to Osaka took a little more than three hours. It was a technological marvel at that time; the Chinese high speed
With Pat Kearney in Kyoto garden
trains and their Maglev in Shanghai were all still in the future. However, the French TGV (Train a Grande Vitesse) running between Paris and Lyon had attained speeds of around 300 kmph in 1981. Nonetheless, Shinkansen predates TGV in concept and actualisation.    

 Osaka, being the commercial nerve centre, appeared to be a very
Garden in Shoguns' Palace
crowded, busy and dusty city. It was supposed to be the third largest in the country. Its approximately 8 square kilometre area was heavily bombed during attacks on Japan in 1945. Most of the city was, supposedly, newly built; whatever had remained unaffected continued to improve. It is the capital of Osaka Prefecture and the largest part of a metropolis that comprises Kyoto and Kobe (the place known for its beef). We did not see much of Osaka. It was mostly made of high rises and busy roads packed with all kinds of vehicles. Instead the emphasis seemed to have been to show us a bit of Kyoto and Nara.

Self in a Nara Garden
A Nara florist
As was said earlier, Kyoto is the part of the Osaka Metropolitan area. The city was the capital of Japan for almost a thousand years until the transfer of the Imperial Court to Tokyo in 1869. Before that, a few centuries earlier Kyoto suffered enormous damage during the wars of the samurais. It, however, escaped any damage during the World War II. Because of its being a centre of culture and learning the United States changed its plans and instead dropped the second atom bomb on Nagasaki. Known for centuries as a “city of ten thousand shrines” Kyoto is a muche better preserved cities. It still boasts of about 2000 Buddhist and Shinto shrines. We could see only very few of the shrines apart
A Nara garden with a sizable pond
from the “Shoguns’ Palace”. Shoguns were the army commanders in feudal Japan and used to exercise real power. The Palace, in fact, a castle was built in the 17th Century as the Kyoto residence of shoguns of the area. I don’t remember much of my visit to the “Palace” but I do remember the garden that surrounded this huge property, perhaps a typical example of ancient Japanese gardens – later to be declared a World Heritage Site. A few photographs have been placed in the album.

The Nara Prefecture borders that of Kyoto. This is also an ancient
A Nara market in an alley
town, having been the capital of the country though only for a few decades in the 8th Century AD. We saw a few shrines here but what interested me most in the town was the way they had converted alleys between two modern buildings into shopping areas covered at the top. This was my first brush with such a convenient arrangement that allowed shopping in a small area. Later, of course, I came across something similar in Venice. Another peculiarity of the town is that it allows deer to
A young cigarette vendor in a Nara alley
roam free all over as also in the well-cared Nara Deer Park. Legend has it that from the inception of the town deer are considered as heavenly animals and its guardians. No wonder, no one ever harms them.


In those narrow alleys I saw some amazing variety of ceramic ware of numerous designs. Japan is known for its porcelain and here it was almost like a feast. From dinner sets to tea sets and
Porcelain pieces bought from Nara
sundry items of daily use and curios, all were there and each piece was of incredible beauty. The aesthetics of each item was just fantastic and one felt like gathering every piece and take off. But that was just not possible – physically or financially. It was so difficult to tear oneself away from the presence of such exquisite creations.

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Neymar's injury - creeping aggression in sports

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The Colombian Zuniga’s downing of football’s superstar Neymar that broke the latter’s vertebra took away bit of sheen from the “Beautiful Game”. The violence of this kind does not quite mix with sports, be it football or sport of any other kind. The Brazil game against Colombia was particularly rough with as many as 54 fouls whistled down and of them 31 were committed by the Brazilians. If this is reckoned as beautiful, one wouldn’t know what beautiful is. Then, of course, there is the curious instance of Luis Suarez of Uruguay sinking his rather weak teeth on the fleshy Italian Chiellini only to rue his act later. Photographs showed that he collapsed on the turf holding his teeth in what seemed to be acute pain. Reports say, Suarez is in the habit of biting his opposing numbers. This time, however he couldn’t get away – having been served with a 9-match ban.

  Fouls are certainly committed in inadvertence but, as one noticed, players were being pulled away or being deliberately downed to prevent them from carrying on with the game. And this happened not once, or twice; it happened umpteen number of times in the games I happened to watch. To me, this does not appear like sport. One plays a game, after all, for pleasure and to extend pleasure to the spectators. It is neither a matter of life and death nor is it a matter of national survival. Then why go and do something like breaking somebody’s back – literally – or even have a go at somebody’s flesh.

True, Football and Hockey, Rugby, Ice Hockey, etc. are what are known as “contact sports” where players of two teams have to have physical contacts with each other. In Rugby and Ice Hockey players even wear protective gear to ward off injuries. After all, for retrieving the ball from the opposition and scoring goal is the objective. In the process players have to tackle those of the opposition and in doing so they could hurt each other. That would be incidental to the game. But what we saw in the World Cup matches was some deliberate contacts with the opposition player only to deprive him possession of the ball or to keep him away from it. In this act everything seemed to be fair including bringing him down or stepping on him with one’s nailed boots or, for that matter, kneeing him on the back. If one thinks of preventing the opposition from playing ball, in my opinion, why play the game at all? But then, even sports have become highly competitive and then there is a lot of money and prestige. It is virtually a soft kind of war, highly hyped up as it is.

I suppose, that is why some of the no-contact sports like cricket and tennis have been described as “Gentlemen’s Game”. Cricket used to be and continues to be gentlemanly. One sees these traits especially in test matches. A batsman or a bowler attains a milestone and he is congratulated by the members of the opposition or if a bowler takes more than five wickets in an innings he, instead of the captain, is made to lead the team back into the pavilion; there are hardly ever any protests against an umpire’s decision. There are many such healthy, gentlemanly conventions that are observed till today highlighting the spirit of sportsmanship. However, aberrations are creeping in and the healthy traditions are gradually yielding place to aggression, more so in the limited-overs matches. Expressions of extreme exuberance verging on being aggressive and intimidating after capturing a wicket have been noticed in numerous limited-overs international games. Showing the way to the pavilion haughtily to a batsman after capturing his wicket– a show of brazen immodesty – is certainly not gentlemanly.

During the Indian Premier League limited over cricket matches I noticed on any number of occasions bowlers aiming the ball in “death” overs close to the line that indicates a “wide” on the Off Side far away from the batsman. On the Leg Side such a ball would be a called a “wide” but not on the Off Side. There must be some reason for this what seems like a wacky rule but that is how it is. The bowlers’ intention is to keep the ball as far away from the batsman as possible so that it is beyond the latter’s reach. This practice is adopted more in matches that progress towards a close finish. If the bowler’s intention is not to allow the batsman to be able to even touch the ball, leave alone score runs off it, then I ask the same question again: why play the game at all? The bowlers could well claim to be bowling within the rules but not the spirit of the, supposedly, gentlemanly game.

Aggression is on occasions seen even in tennis which is also reckoned as a gentlemen’s game. One can often see rather assertive exuberance in players after winning a crucial game or a set. It wasn’t so earlier. With the onset of “boom boom”, serve and volley game, tennis seems to have lost that softness of yore. But, then today the game is played with intense passion after years of preparation of the mind and the body and huge investments in time effort and money. It is all reckoned as worth it as there is such a lot of money tagged on to professional tennis. And, yet I find Roger Federer not quite gelling with the crowd. He is different. A legendary tennis player, having been conferred with numerous awards– even off the tennis courts – for the qualities of his head and heart, his equanimity after a win is admirable. His exuberance after hitting a winner and scoring a point is always subdued, is never jarring or strident. Even after a win his elation and exultation are mostly composed and are to acknowledge the cheers and appreciation of spectators and also, probably,  to internalise them – to allow them to seep within.

One supposes that is how a sportsman should conduct himself. But, that would be idealistic; all kinds assemble in the sporting arena contributing to the rough and tumble of competitive sports and that, perhaps, makes things more interesting in today’s world.


Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Indian Railways need a makeover*

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Derailment of the prestigious New Delhi- Dibrugarh Rajdhani Express the other day near Chhapra in Bihar is virtually a wake-up call for the Indian Railways and its newly appointed minister. It is not yet certain what caused the accident that reportedly took four lives. Whether it was sabotage or plain neglect and incompetence on the part of the tracks inspection staff is yet to be ascertained. Inquiries are going to be conducted but a later report said that the Intelligence Bureau had sent an alert about a Maoist threat. The area is Maoists-affected. Nonetheless, it would be premature to arrive at any conclusion.

The fact, however, remains that there have been far too many railway accidents of late. This year alone has witnessed more than half a dozen accidents which have taken many lives. If these occurred because of negligence, inadequacy of equipment due to unavailability of funds or lack of supervision or monitoring, the Railways will have to contend with them as soon as possible taking lessons from the findings of the inquiries to allocate suitable financial, human, and material resources. This is one aspect of railway accidents in India. The other is terror. Terror lurks in this country almost at every bend of the road or a railway track. It could generally be of Islamic variety or of Maoist type. Acute watchfulness is necessary to ensure that they do not harm innocents travelling in a train or wantonly destroy railway property. They are desperados ruthlessly waging war against the State. Safety, therefore, has become an issue of prime importance for the travelling public and the Railways will have to see their way through to provide it.

We run a big railway system, the fourth largest if one goes by track-kilometres. But that is about all. It has only marginally improved since the British left and the erstwhile railway companies were amalgamated into one monolith of Indian Railways. Although considered the lifeline of the nation we failed to take railway transport to a higher level efficiency as some others in Asia, especially China and Japan, have done. We have always suffered from resource constraints. For the last decade or so the populist budgets with no fare hikes in the face of rising costs of inputs, particularly formulated by regional politicians who happened to be at helm, have worsened the situation.  Working only to nurse their respective constituencies and handing out freebies to different sections of the privileged, they neglected the railway finances and allowed them to go to seed.

Indians are, therefore, unused to face railway fare hikes for quite some years. No wonder there have been mass demonstrations against the recent hike announced by the new Railway Minister – a virtual necessity to avoid complete “operational and financial collapse”. The Opposition, the Congress party, is crying hoarse about it but its protests, as in many cases, are hypocritical. The hike in the fares was approved by the last Prime Minister but his minister was not man enough to implement it. That is precisely why one tends to think that the Congress never worked for betterment of the country; it only worked for votes.

With the Rajdhani accident questions are, therefore, justifiably being asked whether the fare hike would make railway travels safe. While no such guarantee can ever be extended but the Railways have to give a serious look within to diagnose what it really ails from. It has to look at the issues of repair, renewal and upgrades in every aspect of its functioning that have remained unattended for a long, long time. We had got a head start at the time of Independence when Japan was recovering from the battering of the World War II and China was in the midst of a revolution. And, yet in the 67 intervening years they have stolen not a, but several marches on us, especially in the field of development of railways and taking them to heights that we will take years to scale. Nevertheless, efforts have to be made and these cannot, certainly, be populist.

The Indian railways need enormous amounts of attention, upgrades and finances. All cannot be attended to at once. One feels that it needs to prioritise and start working on things that presently hurt the most. Everyone is talking about its collapsing finances. Like the Union Government, it, too, has to start economising. Last year Pawan Kumar Bansal, the Minister for Railways had announced (DNA 26-02-2013) that as the organisation was staring at a loss of 24000 crores “austerity and economy” would be practised rigorously. No such effort, however, ever hit the headlines. No effort was made to cut down and/or improve the productivity of its 15 lakh personnel and no effort was made to restrict the numbers of freeloaders who travel without paying a pie. Every budget virtually has seen their ranks getting enlarged. One can imagine the losses to the Railways if 15 lakh employees and an equal number of pensioners travel free of cost on it every year. Privy purses of the princes were abolished forty years ago but the erstwhile railway companies’ legacy of free travel for railway employees, even post-retirement, continues till today. Is there any logic?

 Then, every budget has seen introduction/extension of trains. Even Bansal, after talking of austerity introduced 67 new express trains and 27 passenger trains. Whether necessary traffic surveys were conducted for all of them is not known. From what happened with the Bhopal-Indore double-decker train which, on introduction, was starved of passengers and is yet to find a viable route to ply on, one would not be sure. Conserving and optimal utilisation of the available resources should be the watchword.

Today, with several accidents in the recent past safety in the railway system has acquired prime importance. There are two sources of threats – internal and external. One is from within the railways because of failure or ageing of equipment, carelessness, lack of commitment of workers and lack of modernisation. Comparatively, the US and China have recorded far lesser numbers of accidents than India. If and when the high speed trains become a reality safety on Indian railways will have to measure up to the ultimate standard. The other source, the external one, will have to be taken care of by utmost vigilance not only by the railways’ own inspection and security establishments but also by other available internal security forces. The elimination of terror on the tracks is necessary.

The internal governance of the railways will have to be tightened since that has direct fallout on passengers’ facilities and conveniences. It cannot remain untouched by the ‘Modi effect’ that has overtaken the Centre which has perked up its offices, breathing new life into them. Sanitation, hygiene and other sundry facilities including punctuality, as indeed the technology currently used, need to be enormously upgraded.
The Indian Railways need a change in its profile.

*The blog was written before the Railways budget was announed

Photo:From the Internet


Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Our cultural baggage of filth and squalor

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A few days ago I happened to drop in at the new shop of the famous chain of “Bikanerwala” located next to the outlet of Reliance Fresh on the Sultania Road. The shop has its usual stock of numerous kinds of salty and sweet snacks for which Bikaner has lately become famous. Even the Michelin Star Chef Vineet Bhatia had mounted a programme on the TV on his visit to the mechanised factory in Bikaner where these snacks are prepared. However, what is important is that I was in for a surprise.

For the first time in Bhopal I did not see salesmen using bare hands to take out stuff from the jars or to weigh them. They were using plastic gloves – a very welcome sign. I don’t know how many times I had suggested to the owner of now famous sweetmeat shop near New Market to enforce use of gloves by his salesmen. Presumably, he could never forcefully insist on them to do so. They continue to use bare, in all probability, unclean hands to hand out edible stuff to the customers. They are just not bothered, or probably they are not aware, that their hands could contaminate the food stuff and transmit infection to their customers. Apparently, for their own convenience they wouldn’t go by what their employer says and have no qualms about putting the unwary customer to risk. Those who run “Bikanerwala” are quite clearly more enlightened and that is why their outlet is a welcome addition to the town.

The India TV channel the other day covered the pantry cars and kitchens attached to several well-known long-distance trains running from east to west and north to south. With hardly any exception the channel’s reporters found the conditions far from satisfactory. The pantry cars were filthy and so were the kitchens; the workers were sweaty and using filthy dusters and, of course,
handling food items with bare hands even though plastic gloves have been supplied to them. The kitchens were littered with waste, the utensils were unclean and cooking oil was seen being used over and over again. Millions of travellers are consuming these food items unaware of the filthy conditions at their source; nobody knows how many fall sick as no count or survey is ever made. Curiously the managers and supervisors were found to be taking everything very casually. In fact, the India TV survey was a disaster for the Indian Railways and their catering services. Cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation


The lack of a sense of hygiene and sanitation is apparently prevalent amongst us, especially in the under-classes, because of cultural factors. Our rural areas exemplify this. Migrants from there carry with them their cultural baggage – ignorance about cleanliness and hygiene is one. The Indian urbanscape has, therefore, not remained untouched by it. I suppose, it would take some more time for everyone to learn to imbibe finer sensibilities and shed some of the undesirable cultural traits. However, wherever this trait is likely to affect multitudes of people, like in trains and public places, the concerned should be checked, educated and suitably advised. Constant monitoring in this regard would seem to be of the essence.    

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Photos: From the Internet 

Saturday, June 28, 2014

Saga of a double decker train

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India is not a stranger to double-decker air-conditioned luxury trains. These are running in Southern, Western, Northern and Eastern sectors, apparently, with no commercial problems. The irony for people of Bhopal, however, is that they struggled to get such a luxury train to run between their town and the commercial capital of the state, Indore, but are now staring at the prospect of losing it altogether.

A few years ago the local newspapers went mad about the train and used to frequently report the progress in manufacture at Kapurthala of its various components. After an inordinate delay the rake left Kapurthala and arrived at Bhopal. But it could not be put into operation immediately basically for the reason that the local railways had not done their home work properly.

Firstly, the route had not been surveyed so that the modifications required at several wayside stations to enable the train to run through them without any obstruction came to be noticed only when the Railways were ready for a trial run. Even the Indore station had to be modified. Secondly, the Railways found to their discomfiture that there was no maintenance staff for this supposedly special train. During the preceding year or two they had overlooked the need for the recruitment. The entire rake therefore sat idle for more than six months in the local Nishatpura Yard - a terrible waste of a productive resource.

A few weeks after the train with eleven double-decker air-conditioned cars started running it was realised that there were not enough passengers on it. The cars were running largely empty to make the train commercially unviable. One really does not know the kind of traffic surveys the Railways had carried out as despite the lapse of a few months the traffic did not pick up. The Railway Administration, therefore, started mulling its shift to some other route where it would be better utilised. Under the pressure of local people, however, the Administration continued to run the train but with reduced number of coaches.

 It transferred seven coaches to Mumbai for running them on the Konkan Railway route up to Madgaon in Goa.The remaining four coaches kept plying between Bhopal and Indore but were, again, found to be running mostly empty. The reasons now attributed for the lack of traffic are competition from road transport, availability of several trains between the two stations, unsuitable and inconvenient schedule and higher fares. All these ought to have come under reckoning before approving the introduction of the train. The Railways have now decided to withdraw the train altogether from this route and run it on a more needy and, perhaps, more profitable route of Mumbai-Madgaon.

The whole saga of this double decker train exudes a stink of utter incompetence on the part of the Railways. They apparently cannot even properly and thoroughly examine a proposal for running a new supposedly special train on a given route. In the process they have wasted precious financial, material and human resources involving enormous amount of opportunity cost.

The latest about the train is that Sumitra Mahajan, an MP from Indore and the recently elected Speaker in the Lok Sabha is reported to have been persuaded to request the railways to reconsider the matter of withdrawal of the train from the Bhopal-Indore route or to consider plying it between Indore and Surat, a route that was never in the reckoning.

Politicians, for their narrow interests of votes and goodwill, always interfere where they have no business to do so. Mahajan should leave it to the Railways to decide using the train as best as they think regardless of their goof-up in running it from Bhopal for Indore – a route that is already saturated with a number of trains, ordinary and luxury buses and taxis of all kinds.

 As is now becoming increasingly evident, politicians have actually been the problem with the Railways. They have, in fact, been so with almost every aspect of the administration. That, however, is another story and can be left to be told some other time.

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 Photo: from the Internet

Saturday, June 21, 2014

DESTINATIONS: JAPAN (1982): TOKYO

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View from my room
We landed not at Haneda, but at Narita airport. Narita was opened to traffic in 1978 after Haneda became overcrowded and facing problem relating to expansion. The flight from Shanghai took about an hour and a half. From the clock inside the terminal I noticed that Tokyo was an hour ahead of Shanghai. We soon headed for the city 63 kilometres away in a shiny regular-sized bus. Outside it was a contrast from China with latest Japanese cars zipping past, their bodies sparkling in the sun as if given a vigorous spit-and-polish. After some time as I looked out of the window I found the bus climbing a flyover that spiralled on to become a multi-tiered affair and I could see down below at other two levels cars speeding up and down. In front I could see a nondescript truck climbing the flyover, its tail-pipe emitting no smoke indicating its perfect combustion
Same view during the day
and engine efficiency.

We were put up at the Tokyo Grand Hotel in the area known as Shibakoen. It was perhaps a 3-star affair and each one of us was given a single room. The room was small but the management of space was to be seen to be believed. Every conceivable comfort had been provided in those 120-odd sq.ft. In that small area there was even a television set which had 8 colour channels. In 1982 we had only one B&W channel, the second coming later. The bath was small but it was neatly planned with no clutter despite a small plastic tub in which one could only stand to take a shower. Plastic was optimally used from bath tub to walls. Japan is short of space and, hence, even their houses are small with the available space optimally used. The room overlooked a wide road with a baseball ground on one of its sides.

The Bullet Train speeding away
Having checked in I had some time before the next engagement. I wanted to have the film rolls exposed in China to be processed. Taking directions from the Reception I headed to the studio which was within walking distance. Colour film rolls – for slides and negatives – were kept outside the shop in a heap in a basket. One could pick up any and leave the money nearby in a container. The same was the case with pocket-sized calculators which were very scarce in India till then. The gent behind the counters took all my details and said that the prints would be ready by evening. I was surprised as in Delhi one had to deposit the rolls at Kodak on Janpath who would send them to Bombay. The films would come processed with prints only after three weeks. Here it was enormously different. Obviously automated printing of colour-negatives had already commenced in Japan. It came to India later in mid 1980s. Those who have grown up in the digital era wouldn't know about all this.
Demonstrators passing by

The first engagement was an introductory session with the senior officials of the Ministry who informed us of the schedule and the itinerary for the fortnight that we would be spending in Japan. While we would be looking at the postal facilities and doing some sites in Tokyo we were also to visit Yokohama, Osaka, Kyoto and Nara. In the process we were told we would be having a ride on the Bullet Train, till then a technological marvel and at that time the fastest in the world. At the inaugural, I also saw for the first time the wireless microphones. The absence
At the totally computerised Nihonbashi Post Office
of a tangle of wires on the floor made me look around when I saw the amplifier in one corner. Japan, after all, was then the technological superpower.

Soon after returning from the Ministry of Communications I headed for the photographer. As soon as he saw me he said he had delivered the rolls at the Hotel. I asked "to whom?" He said to the Reception. I asked "payment?” He said they made it. This was incredible. Thanking him I returned to the Hotel and checked with the Reception and they gave me the fat packet and said I could pay anytime I wished. Thoroughly overwhelmed I paid for the films there and then. Things have been made incredibly smooth by evolving a work-culture that ensures conveniences for the people.

At Ginza
In Japan the emphasis was on showing their processes which happened to be different from China with more technology inducted into them. We were taken to their computer centre where we had to leave our shoes outside. The machines, dust-sensitive and huge like cupboards, were lined up against the walls. Surely, primitive in comparison to today’s progressively miniaturized versions, these were being made use of for various operations.

Nihonbashi post office was a totally computerized office with minimal manual operations. Everything, from booking of a mail piece to its sorting and bagging for destination moved on the basis of computer programmes that were guided by optical character readers (OCRs). OCRs were extensively used so much so that the Japanese authorities had even printed postal stationery amenable to
The highrises of Shinjuku
processing by them. At that time the OCRs in Japan could read hand-written digits in eight different styles. Watching the machines in operations many a time one felt that as if an invisible supernatural hand was behind the moving trays, bags in small trolleys that would travel on rails to predetermined destinations guided remotely by computers.

The OCRs were also in use at metro stations in ticket dispensers. The machines could read the currency notes shoved in and spit out a desired railway ticket and also drop the change in a tray. At the Communications Museum I saw for the first time facsimile machines. Unlike the current tiny ones, these were of the size of a smallish refrigerator, say of 150 litres. I signed on a piece of paper and it was run through the machine only to yield a copy from another one kept a few metres away.
Ginza at night

Japanese technology, particularly in the area of consumer electronics, was moving towards its peak. The country was still in manufacturing – the shift to China came much later. Soni, Sansui, National, Sharp etc. were household names in India but their products were largely unavailable. The market was starving for them and was partially fed by smuggling. And, there in Tokyo in the area called Akihabara electronic goods were stacked up in shop after shop from floor to the roof. Until then I had never seen video recorders/players, food processors and such like. It was mindboggling. That’s when one realised the differences between an industrialized rich nation and an un-developed country. Ours was a closed economy, trying to be self-reliant without much capability – and a (pseudo) socialist republic to boot.
Ginza as an open air huge cafe

Japan had already wrested leadership from Germany in the area of photographic equipment. Gone were the days when Exaktas, Leicas, Agfas, Rollies used to call the shots. The quality products from Asahi Pentax, Nikon, Minolta, Konica and so on were a rage, I dare say, even in China. Even I had acquired from my sister in the US a Minolta SLR with a 50mm lens with f stop of 1.4. The Japanese later broke the “zero barrier” making the lens incredibly powerful.

Our consultant, Pat Kearney, was a professional photograph and used to shoot regattas held in Hobart in Tasmania, his home town. While he was looking for a telescopic long lens I wanted a few accessories. I joined him in the quest for
A Tokyo temple
some photographic equipment. We had to go to Shinjuku, the commercial centre, where a reputed shop dealing in cameras and other photographic stuff was suggested to us. We took the Metro from close to our Hotel. It was my first metro ride. We in India did not have metros nor was there any in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore or China - the countries I had been to. The Shinjuku metro station was probably a junction of several lines and was therefore huge. It had seemingly another city underground with shops, restaurants, tailors, beauty parlours and what have you. People were relaxing, sipping coffee or having beer. The whole place was so well lit that one really did not miss daylight. It was just as crowded as perhaps the city over-ground. A similar atmosphere I later saw in Hibiya City where we used to change to go to Ginza. Once I even walked right through the underground passageway to Ginza from Hibiya; it was like going past an entire township.
Another view of Ginza at night

Yudobashi in Shinjuku with a crowd of tall high-rises was not a very big shop in its two or three floors yet was into retailing almost all brands of Japanese cameras. That is why the salesmen would raise a racket as soon as one entered the shop inviting the visitor to their respective shop. It was more like the meat market we had in Gwalior where one would be greeted with a chorus of shouts of invites as soon as one entered it. Yudobashi was indeed a great shop and one would find every conceivable camera, lens or accessories there.

 After buying an aperture-priority Minolta SLR body and a few accessories I came out and sat on a thoughtfully provided bench to have a smoke. Street lights had come on. Soon I noticed a salesman in his tunic of blue serge trousers, a light blue half-sleeved shirt and a peak cap came out with a broom in hand and started sweeping the area in front of the shop. It was perhaps close
Animated mannequins of Ginza
to closing time. It seems everyone in Japan sweeps clean their respective business areas – inside and outside – before closing for the day. That is why even early in the morning the city is clean and litter-free. It is so different from our non-functional methods regarding cleanliness in public places.

A swamp that was filled up way back in the 17th Century to create what later became Ginza is now an upscale commercial and business hub with department stores, boutiques, restaurants and coffee shops. Mitsukoshi, an institution then of chain stores, had its outlet there and I bought from its huge store a lovely-looking orange and black Silver Reed portable typewriter.  One would always see crowds milling in the area, particularly in the evenings and at night it is a veritable fairyland with coloured neon illuminating billboards of every well-know Japanese firm. A place ideal for window shopping, I saw animated mannequins swinging their hands holding high-end bags. There is nothing that was not available there. Perhaps on Sundays, a main thoroughfare is blocked for people to come and relax with their families. The cafeterias put their chairs and tables out on the street. It was almost like a fair.

The host administration gave us a fabulous evening at the Imperial Hotel. Located close to the Imperial Palace in the neighbourhood of Ginza, it was a
At the Imperial Hotel
luxurious place and looked every bit like that. Food was mostly Japanese with some Western stuff thrown in. What I liked best was tempura, a dish of battered sea-food and sake, the Japanese wine made out of rice. Quite curiously, it is taken warm.

 Since there were no women in our group, wives of Japanese officials were not invited. Instead they had hostesses – young girls in elaborate hair-do, wearing traditional kimonos that generally were not seen on Tokyo streets. During a conversation with one of then I was told that they were all students and had volunteered to be hostesses for the evening mostly to brush up their English. I thought it was a very good idea!


The Japanese are very traditional and polite people. Bowing, for instance is
A side street behind the Tokyo Grand Hotel
very important and the deeper the bow the greater is the respect shown. At a shop the lady gave me a deep bow and I too had to bow not once but twice to enable her to straighten up. Likewise, “arigato” is a much used word. The word conveys thanks and it is used far too frequently. Japanese people have become westernised in many ways but the hold of their culture and traditions continue to be very strong.

Tuesday, June 17, 2014

Greening along the roads

http://bagchiblog.blodspot.com


Sher Shah Suri
Nitin Gadkari, the new minister for highways has decided to walk the same road as Sher Shah Suri, the Pushtoon who wrested the Indian empire from the Moguls more than six centuries ago. Sher Shah is known to have built the Grand Trunk Road from Patna to Delhi and had planted trees all along it for the benefit of the travelers. Gadkari, likewise, has taken a decision to plant 2 billion trees along the hundreds of thousands of kilometers of highways in the country. This, he perhaps rightly claims, would be of help in improving the environment, provide shade to travellers along barren stretches and afford employment to villagers. Gadkari has proposed to entrust the job of planting and taking care of the saplings to the nearby village women’s self help groups. The plan is to plant useful trees that also yield some income to the villagers. If the project materialises it would be a win-win situation for all concerned, more particularly for the villagers who have a highway passing close by.

One would like to wish Gadkari success in his endeavour. He, incidentally, is the person who, as a minister in Maharashtra, had the the Bombay-Pune expressway completed in record time.


Nitin Gadkari
This should be of interest to us as well in Bhopal. Whereas the Centre is contemplating greening of the country's highway system here in Bhopal the local municipality has denuded the city of thousands of trees for creating the BRTS corridor. Having accomplished that, it refuses to re-green the city's roadsides just because it claims to have done compensatory plantation far away out of the town on a hill. Its authorities have completely missed out on the concept of developing roadside greenery, especially in a hot country like ours. Bhopal consistently saw this summer temperatures of above 45 degrees Celsius for days together – a very unusual occurrence for a city known once for its salubrious climate.

I might add that the BRTS corridor is the single most important factor for this unusual occurrence. What is more, the corridor has ceased to be meant for rapid transit of BRTS buses as it has been disrupted in the New Market area for the sake of ensuring adequate returns for the businesses being plied from there. As if that is not enough, the corridor ceases to exist in the Main (Link) Road No 1 whenever the politicians decide to have a bash at their residences located along the road. The corridor becomes the parking lot on such occasions for guests of the ministers.


One therefore tends to ask whether sacrifice of so many old, mature and fully grown trees was worth it. Perhaps better traffic management would have obviated that necessity. In any case, the Traffic Police have suddenly become active in abolishing the corridor in the New Market, reportedly, on the instructions of its political bosses. But, even if felling so many trees was necessary, the municipality should see its way through to bring back the lost greenery along the BRTS route as soon as possible.

Perhaps the municipality will make amends and commence re-greening of the sides of the arterial roads.